With increasing urbanization, cement serves quite literally as the foundation of the building boom.
Cement is an important driver of economic progress in most countries. In Canada, where this research was conducted, the cement industry contributes more than $3 billion annually to GDP and employs more than 25,000 workers. The amount and type of fuel consumed in producing cement not only impacts costs, but has social and environmental consequences.
This report prepared by Network for Business Sustainability and commissioned by the Cement Association of Canada presents a comprehensive overview of the current literature on cement manufacturing with respect to emissions control and the use of alternative fuels. This systematic review identified 110 prior studies from academic, institutional and practitioner sources that addressed the following research questions:
What are the environmental, human health, social and economic implications of using alternative energy sources in cement manufacturing?
How does the use of alternative energy sources in cement manufacturing compare with other end-of-life/waste management options in terms of the net environmental, human health, social and economic aspects?