Managers Need to Know: Metrics for Social Impact

What are the best metrics for determining social impact? Share specific examples from your own experience. 
NBS September 19, 2017
Industry members of NBS want to know what research has to say about:

What are the best metrics for determining social impact, and how can companies gather appropriate data?

Sustainability practitioners and researchers have made great strides in measuring the impact of environmental activities. When a company optimizes its delivery fleet or reduces product packaging, for example, the impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and waste going to landfill are clear. Measuring the effect of social initiatives can be more challenging. Companies support a range of social efforts, from raising awareness to  community development, but can be unsure of the impact on individuals and the broader society. What guidance can sustainability research (e.g., on social enterprises or socially responsible investment) offer these managers?

Companies that care about – and actively invest in – their communities want to know: What types of metrics best capture the benefits of social investments? And what are the best mechanisms for capturing data to support those metrics? Please share specific impact measurement metrics/examples/studies.